According to the nature of a project, engineering studies will include all or part of the following steps:

1. Basic Engineering Design (BED) covering:

  1. Conceptual process studies (material balances, process flow sheets...) and preliminary plot plan.
  2. Preliminary Piping and Instrument Diagrams.
  3. Definition and sizing of main equipment resulting in process specifications.
  4. Specification of effluents.
  5. Definition of control and safety devices.
  6. And, generally speaking, all the basic studies required supporting a Basic Engineering Design Package (BEDP) containing all data needed by a competent contractor to perform the Detail Engineering.

2. Front End Engineering Design (FEED) covering:

  1. Mechanical data sheets of the main equipment, starting from the process specifications issued during the BED and incorporating the specific requirements of codes and standards to be applied to the project in question.
  2. Thermal rating of heat exchangers.
  3. Preparation of tender packages for the main equipment.
  4. Development of process and utility Piping and Instrument Diagrams released for detail engineering.
  5. Development of detailed plot plans and hazardous areas.
  6. Elaboration of the main piping, instrument, electrical and civil works layouts.
  7. And, generally speaking, all the studies to be performed before ordering the main equipment.

3. Detail Engineering, covering:

  1. Purchasing of equipment, main and bulk.
  2. Thermal rating of heat exchangers.
  3. Development of Piping and Instrument Diagrams released for construction.
  4. Development of detailed piping drawings, including isometrics and stress calculations.
  5. Development of detailed drawings related to instrumentation, electrical facilities and civil works.
  6. Management of vendor drawings.
  7. Cost and schedule control.
  8. Start-up procedures.